Brute force is a common method of network security attack that utilizes a computer program that automatically tries a large number of password combinations to crack passwords. This attack method is commonly used to gain unauthorized access, such as hacking into network systems or personal accounts. Below we will explore the principles, tools and prevention methods of brute force cracking.
Principle of brute force cracking
Brute-force cracking utilizes a computer program to automate the generation of possible password combinations and submit them to the target system for verification. This attack method is based on several assumptions:
1, passwords are composed of a collection of characters: passwords usually consist of letters, numbers and symbols, so a brute-force cracking program will generate all possible password combinations based on this collection of characters.
2, the password length is limited: due to the limited length of the password, the brute force cracking program can try all possible password combinations until it finds the correct password.
3, Passwords are predictable: In some cases, passwords may be generated based on common patterns or laws, so a brute-force cracking program can take advantage of these laws to crack passwords faster.
Tools and techniques
A commonly used tool for brute force cracking is brute force cracking software, which automates the process of generating and trying all possible password combinations. Some commonly used brute force cracking tools include John the Ripper, Hashcat, and Aircrack-ng. These tools use different techniques to crack passwords such as:
1. Dictionary attack is an attack method that tries to crack a password based on a predefined list of passwords. This method is usually based on guessing that the user has used some common passwords such as "123456", "password", etc. Therefore, the dictionary attack program automatically tries all the passwords in these password lists. If the target user uses one of these passwords, the attacker can successfully crack the password.
2. Brute force attack is an attack method that uses all possible combinations of passwords to try to crack a password. This attack method is very inefficient because it requires trying a large number of password combinations. However, it can be an effective attack method in some cases, such as when the password length is very short or a weak password is used.
3. Hybrid attack is an attack method that combines dictionary attack and brute force attack. This attack method uses a dictionary attack program to try some possible password combinations, and then uses a brute force attack program to try the remaining password combinations.
How to prevent brute force cracking?
Brute-force breaking is a very dangerous attack method that can lead to serious consequences such as theft of confidential data, breach of network security and damage to reputation. Therefore, the best way to protect yourself from brute-force breaking attacks is to use strong passwords and multi-factor authentication.
Strong passwords should contain upper and lower case letters, numbers, and special characters and should be at least 12 characters long. Passwords should also be changed on a regular basis to prevent attackers from using brute-force breaking techniques for extended periods of time. Multi-factor authentication requires users to provide at least two methods of authentication when logging in, such as password and fingerprint, password and CAPTCHA, and password and security token.
In addition to taking the above measures to protect themselves from brute-force breaking attacks, administrators can also take other security measures such as:
Using network security devices such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and anti-virus software to protect against malware and network attacks. Implementing access control policies to restrict access to sensitive data, such as using role-based access control and network isolation techniques.Conducting security training and awareness-raising activities to help employees understand how to protect their passwords and personal information, and how to recognize and respond to cyber threats.